Romance, Historical, Contemporary, Paranormal, Young Adult, Book reviews, industry news, and commentary from a reader's point of view

In Praise of the Man Titty

Dark Lover by JR Ward

"A book’s cover is absolutely the single most important thing about the
physical object that is a book.” –  Betsy Groban, Little, Brown and
Company, Inc. (login required).

The cover of your book is the single most important promotional element. – Dick Claassen, Editor Awe-struck books.

I bought Dark Lover because of the cover, the title, and the series name – the Black Dagger Brotherhood. I bought Poison Study because of the cover, the title, and the blurb. I buy books based on their cover. I used to not buy books based on the man titty, romancelandia’s term for the cover featuring the male chest, oftentimes the headless male chest.

It’s irrefutable that the naked male chest cover sells books. It sells more copies than books with houses, flower gardens and lovely ladies. According to Sue Grimshaw, Buyer for Borders Group Inc., “the sexier the cover the more interest we see from our customers, especially in the paranormal and historical sub-genres. Male torsos continue to be best sellers and a good stepback never hurts. ”

The clinch cover emerged in the 80s to create a genre look for romance so that the men who were stocking these books woud buy them and shelve them. Over time, the clinch has given way to the naked man chest cover. The reason for this is best described by Denise Little in an awesome piece written by Laura Resnick.

The clinch gave the genre a uniform, identifiable look which helped it emerge as a force in the late ’70s and the ’80s. – Denise Litte.

Genre identification is just a different way of saying branding. We associate certain things with visual clues. Coke, Pepsi, cars all use some type of branding to make consumers immediately identify the product with the manfacturer. Genre identification goes beyond the individual publisher to embrace the entire romance industry. The problem is that when one book is successful, publishers copy that packaging as closely as possible until the exteriors are as homogenized as the interiors.

I just came from Barnes and Noble and there were tables after tables of books layed out so that I could not distinguish one cover from the other. It was just all a conglomeration of colors running together. Maybe if I had stared at it long enough, it would become one of those optical illusions and one book would jump out at me, but the longer that I stared at the tables, the more the covers became one giant impressionist painting.


I am beginning to think that I can’t trust covers these days because comic covers doesn’t necessarily mean a comic book. (Tall, Dark & Dead by Tate Hallaway). A woman’s modern day slip doesn’t mean contemporary. (Undressed by Kristina Cook). In this day of greater hybridization, I can barely tell what the difference is between a chic lit a romance, a paranormal, a funny paranormal. I don’t know what to buy anymore and I don’t have time to read a thousand reviews, the back blurbs or the first chapter for every book that catches my eye. This is true for buyers as well as readers.

In the same Resnick article, she relates the following:

A publisher’s sales representatives go to the buyers with their publisher’s current list several times a year. The “buyers” are the people who represent the major chains, the superstores, and the various distributors; they are the people who decide whether or not your book will get into bookstores, supermarkets, bus stops, airports, department stores, and other outlets, locally as well as nationally. “The buyers,” says Mydlowski, “say to the publisher’s representative, ‘We can take twenty-two mystery titles this month. So we’ll take Paretsky and Peters and twenty others.’ The salesman lays out all the mystery covers on a table, and the buyers choose their remaining twenty titles from the covers they like best.”

For over two decades, the male chest has adorned our covers. We associate romance with naked male chests. In this day of greater hybridization, I have yet to read a book with a naked male chest that is not strictly a romance. It’s not that I want to see the romance industry go back to the days of the man titty, but at least with the man titty, I know it is a romance.

Sandra Hill is one author I recalled whose book had two different covers. The Very Virile Viking featured both a “hunk” and a “cartoon” cover. (The VVV received a starred review from PW). I asked her whether she felt comfortable sharing whether there was a difference in sales for the different covers.

The sales for both editions are roughly equal, but there were almost no stores where both copies were available. IOW, the reader did not have a choice. I write romantic humor, no matter if it is historical, contemporary or time-travel; The Very Virile Viking is a tongue-in-cheek title for a contemporary time-travel. When the first cover was shown to me, the cover was a cartoon…so awful one reader referred to it as Peter Pan on Crack, but the thing that prompted Dorchester to go for a second cover was that the Viking’s shadow looked like a devil, which many, many romance readers would object to. Stefan was the model for the second cover, which was a very nice hunk cover. It was not a good experiment, readers who love hunk covers were outraged to only find the cartoon cover in their area and vice-versa.

I will say this about hunk covers, they probably established me in the early years, especially since so many of them featured John D’Salvo.

Hill goes on to share a couple of funny stories about her covers which I felt should be shared with blogland:

Funny story. I called the cover of Sweeter Savage Love, an historical time-travel, featuring John D’Salvo lying on a bed, just barely covered by a sheet, my “bag over the head” cover, meaning I wouldn’t do a book signing in a mall for that book unless I had a bag over my head. And, btw, readers like to point out to me that it sure

looks like something suspicious peeking out of that sheet. This book sold very well, and at least some of it is due to that blasted cover.Writers love to hate sexy hunk covers, but ironically, when I have done book signings at author-heavy conferences, guess which book always sells out first. Yep, JohnD in the buff.

>Another funny story. When I first saw the cover art for my second novel, The Outlaw Viking, I almost had a heart attack. There was JohnD in a blond wig wearing a fur thingee, which of course my hero never wore. I swear there is a closet in cover artists’ studios where clueless artists go when they need props. In my case, it’s, “Oh, this is a Viking book; let’s go pull out the fur thingee.” As to the humor here. When I showed that cover to my hair sytlist, I expected her to remark about how silly that fur thingee was, but instead she said, “Whoo-boy! I guess that fur thingee slipped a bit.” I said, “Huh?” I didn’t see anything. But you know, it was kind of like those Waldo books where you look and look for the hidden object and when you finally find it she can’t believe you didn’t see it in the first place because it is so glaring. Well, that’s how I feel about The Outlaw Viking. Everytime I look at it now, all I see is the “Waldo.”

I guess I’ll take a John D’Salvo or Nathan Kemp cover any day of the week when it promises me romance with a capital R instead of a the following Kensington cover discovered by The Good, The Bad, and the Unread. All this thought about covers led me to contact a few cover artists about their contribution in the romance industry. In June, we’ll run a short “interview with a cover artist series.”

What questions do you have about covers and cover artists? (ie. what do you want to see answered in the interview). What is the best or worst cover you’ve seen? Have you voted in the “cover contest” over at the Cover Cafe? If you are an author, what is your best or worst cover story? Do you have good or bad cover karma as Denise Little suggests in the Resnick article?

Jane Litte is the founder of Dear Author, a lawyer, and a lover of pencil skirts. She spends her downtime reading romances and writing about them. Her TBR pile is much larger than the one shown in the picture and not as pretty. You can reach Jane by email at jane @ dearauthor dot com

39 Comments

  1. Kristie(J)
    May 08, 2007 @ 05:34:23

    Rats! I have to leave for work in just moments – but interesting that Avon

    still

    uses 80′s style covers for books written in 2007. I really loathe that they do this!!
    I’ll be back for more when I get home later today

    ReplyReply

  2. Kerry Allen
    May 08, 2007 @ 05:36:37

    “‘We can take twenty-two mystery titles this month. So we'll take Paretsky and Peters and twenty others.' The salesman lays out all the mystery covers on a table, and the buyers choose their remaining twenty titles from the covers they like best.â€?

    This is why I shop online. I can get anything I want, rather than a narrow cross section of the market that appealed to someone else’s idea of eye candy. They could be all-white covers with black block print, for all I care. I don’t buy a book to spend hours looking at the cover. I want a good story, which has absolutely nothing to do with the cover.

    I guess I’m just not as superficial as the average reader. :D

    ReplyReply

  3. Sarah Frantz
    May 08, 2007 @ 06:30:16

    I think you’re missing a quote in the middle of the piece. You say, “Resnick goes on to say that” and then there’s no quote. Just FYI.

    ReplyReply

  4. Angie
    May 08, 2007 @ 07:11:16

    I am beginning to think that I can't trust covers these days because comic covers doesn't necessarily mean a comic book.

    At RT I sat on a panel with Kate Duffy of Kensington, for aspiring authors, and one of the things she said was that comic book covers don’t do well for them and authors like Kathy Love (who’s had more than a few) will be switching to non-comic-type covers. The fact is, they don’t sell well (we notice this at Samhain, as well, and have revisited with the art department not comic covers).

    I don’t buy much romance based on the cover (though there are times that I will NOT buy it based on what I think is a bad cover), but I do buy fantasy/urban fantasy/sci-fi that way. At least, I pick it up from the shelf based on that, when I’m browsing in the bookstore. If I buy online, “browsing” is done differently. But in the bookstore, in the fantasy section, covers are what definitly draw me in!

    ReplyReply

  5. December Quinn
    May 08, 2007 @ 07:30:38

    You guys reviewed my worst cover story. It was so exactly what I’d asked them not to do, and I cried and cried when I saw it…I still can’t bear to look at it.

    ReplyReply

  6. Sarah McCarty
    May 08, 2007 @ 07:36:25

    *Smacking forehead* The male torso is code for ROMANCE!. DUH!

    When I received the cover for Caine’s Reckoning (First book in the Hell’s Eight series from SPICE) which I LOVE (that man is built in a way that implies hard work versus trips to the gym and will draw a woman across the room just for a chance to touch), I wondered about two things: why my SPICE cover was totally different from previous books in the lines covers, and why SPICE wasn’t playing up the fact that this series is romance. Now, I see how clever marketing is about using the cover to send out the broadest possible message. The crackling gives the impression of historical, the color implies the grittiness of the story, the open shirt the erotic aspect and now the last piece of the puzzle-The male torso says ROMANCE!!!!

    I am, officially, triplely thrilled with this cove whch is quite the feat seeing as I was over the moon when I opened the file. *G*

    ReplyReply

  7. Jackie
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:02:28

    While I admire terrific covers, I no longer buy (or, actually, don’t buy) books based on the covers. From everything that I’ve experienced, authors have very little say in the covers (if they have a say at all; some of us don’t).

    ReplyReply

  8. Roslyn
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:03:53

    I pre-ordered Big Spankable Asses because I love the cover. I think its a hoot. I don’t generally care about the cover, unless they stand out in some way. I actually think its absurd to put people on the cover of any books not directed to children, but that’s another whole conversation. I’m actually surprised by the reaction over at Sybil’s blog. Maybe its a cultural thing?

    ReplyReply

  9. Tara Marie
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:36:25

    I’m not a cover freak–good or bad. Occasionally, a cover will catch my attention, but if I don’t like the blurb I’m not likely to buy it.

    I did find Laura Resnick’s article interesting. Especially finding out that some bookstore buyers use cover code while determining what to buy–that explains a lot–LOL. I could have told her “green” doesn’t sell. I grew up with a superstitious Dad–”green’s” bad luck. The man was horrified when my son announced at dinner the other night his favorite color’s green. I have no idea where this comes from, but I do know that in the past race car drivers wouldn’t drive green cars?

    ReplyReply

  10. Patrice Michelle
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:37:10

    Cover are very important to me because I know that sometimes it’s the cover that draws a reader’s eye first. When they pick up the book, then it’s up to the author to capture the reader attention with the blurb and his or her writing. I feel very fortunate that my publishers’ art departments have worked with me to come up with covers that represent my books well. I love my most recent cover. :)

    ReplyReply

  11. Jane
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:40:26

    I’m pretty superficial. I mean, I really can be sold on a good cover. Not the good cover alone, but a good cover will make me take a second look. I don’t know about the Big Spankable Asses book. It just doesn’t appeal to me. Maybe it’s selling a certain kink in the title, but it’s just not a book I would feel comfortable reading in public.

    ReplyReply

  12. Leslie Kelly
    May 08, 2007 @ 08:43:05

    Am I the only dweeb who immediately went to Amazon for a bigger picture so I could look for Waldo?

    PS: The cover suckage in my s.t. career has a nearly perfect average. My last book, in particular, was hideous…and the sell-in to the stores reflected that.

    ReplyReply

  13. Patrice Michelle
    May 08, 2007 @ 09:13:38

    Jane said, “I'm pretty superficial. I mean, I really can be sold on a good cover. Not the good cover alone, but a good cover will make me take a second look.”

    Yep, that’s what I was talking about. I’m the same way. A good cover WILL make me pick up a book (not buy it, but definitely pick it up_. Guess that means I’m a visual person.

    ReplyReply

  14. Alison Kent
    May 08, 2007 @ 09:41:06

    Am I the only dweeb who immediately went to Amazon for a bigger picture so I could look for Waldo?

    Oh, no. I was right there. ;)

    ReplyReply

  15. Bonnie Edwards
    May 08, 2007 @ 09:46:49

    Re: Green and male torsos… it was The Hard Stuff – green and very male that landed on CNBC, Geraldo and others back in January 06. This was the launch antho for Kensington’s Aphrodisia line.

    We’ve had three printings…. Go Green Man! Go!

    and heck yeah, the stories are verra verra good.

    Heh heh heh

    ReplyReply

  16. LinM
    May 08, 2007 @ 09:49:41

    Covers – off the top of my head, I would have said that I usually ignore covers and look at titles but looking through your examples, I see this is a lie.

    Generally, I ignore most books with comic book covers unless they have very minimal line art. So these books only hit my radar if something else draws my attention. I read Moira J. Moore’s books only because of the number of reviews that said “Ignore the cover – repeat – ignore the cover”; I wouldn’t have picked them up otherwise.

    When I first started reading romance, AAR listed “Lord of Scoundrels” as a top romance. I tracked it down but didn’t buy it because of the cover. Later fictionwise featured it as a 100% rebate selection so that worked out.

    Flower covers don’t sell – rats, I picked up “The Seduction” by Julia Ross because of the cover.

    Outside of romance, when “Solstice Wood” by Patricia McKillip was released without a Kinuko Y. Craft cover, my first reaction was to think that the publisher must have hated the book.

    ReplyReply

  17. Lucinda Betts
    May 08, 2007 @ 11:04:10

    To me, the title, “Big, Spankable Asses” is very tongue in cheek!

    ReplyReply

  18. December Quinn
    May 08, 2007 @ 11:35:48

    [quote comment="27947"]To me, the title, “Big, Spankable Asses” is very tongue in cheek![/quote]

    Heh heh heh.

    ReplyReply

  19. Sarah McCarty
    May 08, 2007 @ 12:10:57

    *Looking at the cover* I just wish my big ass looked that good. *sighing and adding more miles to daily walk*

    ReplyReply

  20. Vivi Anna
    May 08, 2007 @ 12:14:15

    I love covers. I look at covers and pick up books based on covers to have a second look.

    And I adore Big Spankable Asses…on the cover and my own, thank you very much!

    ReplyReply

  21. jmc
    May 08, 2007 @ 12:27:41

    When I read the title Big, Spankable Asses, I think of the character Steve from Coupling and his favorite porn, Lesbian Spank Inferno. While it makes me chuckle, I feel no urge to pick up a copy of the book.

    ReplyReply

  22. Sasha
    May 08, 2007 @ 14:20:57

    Am I the only dweeb who immediately went to Amazon for a bigger picture so I could look for Waldo?

    I was there too. LOL And a bit disappointed the image wasn;t big enough. DO i need glasses? I couldn’t find Waldo. :(

    As for covers, *I* think I have good cover Karma, but I also know that my covers don’t appeal to everyone. Mine mostly have women on the cover, even though they are erotic romances. That said, I can’t wait to unviel the cover for my Decemebr release Sexy Devil. I’m holding it back because I don’t want it to take away from Lush or my August release Trouble. Uh Huh, it’s a hot male torso…very hot! ANd I think it really will help sales!

    ReplyReply

  23. Jennie
    May 08, 2007 @ 15:20:42

    The salesman lays out all the mystery covers on a table, and the buyers choose their remaining twenty titles from the covers they like best.�

    I think this is a little overly simplistic—obviously the cover makes a huge difference, but the publisher’s sales people do know something about the book and they have a lot of influence with what buyers choose. If a book is getting good in-house buzz, then that carries over to the buyer.

    Personally, I buy pretty much on recommendation only. I hardly ever just browse in a bookstore picking up random things just because they have pretty covers.

    ReplyReply

  24. Sybil
    May 08, 2007 @ 15:58:03

    You know sasha I think your covers have been pretty good and Lush is very pretty. But putting aside what I personally think – I bet they haven’t done a lot to help sell the book to the general superficial reader.

    The ones that make an author a bestseller.

    The ones that make an author hit lists.

    The ones that become fangrrls and stalk each and every book.

    The ones who would prolly find that comment way up there annoying nify smily at the end of the sentence and all.

    Am I that reader? Not really and most of the net blog readers aren’t but ten to one that hot male torso sells you to them much faster than the pretty Lush cover. It will be interesting to see. Of course either way I bought Lush and after all isnt’ that all that matters ;)

    ReplyReply

  25. The Good, The Bad and The Unread » The Superficial
    May 08, 2007 @ 18:09:50

    [...] Dear Jane and Gwen have almost a meeting of the minds about covers and oddly enough (not) I agree and disagree. As far as the BSA cover and title go my issue isn’t spanking or the nekkid but the image it gives the genre. [...]

  26. Kristina Cook
    May 08, 2007 @ 19:21:10

    My whole career to-date has been a bad cover story!! And I am SO happy to finally have some man-titty on the cover of my upcoming (June ’07) book–Nathan Kamp man-titty at that! Maybe now readers will have at least a tiny clue that my books are actually historical! I almost wept with relief when I saw my new ‘cover look.’ Finally, my complaints were heard and addressed, though probably too late to do any good.

    ReplyReply

  27. Sarah McCarty
    May 09, 2007 @ 02:00:46

    Okay, Kristina. I had to go look. Those are really cute chick lit covers… But yeah, not so great if you’re writing histoical.

    BUT, the latest cover is really hot! That has got to have you dancing aruond the room.

    ReplyReply

  28. Mechele Armstrong
    May 09, 2007 @ 05:56:04

    I have had so good cover karma so far. I hope it continues. There are artists I love pretty much everything they do and so far they’ve been doing most of my covers.

    I will look at a book based on the cover. But it takes the blurb to draw me in. That’s how I found Sherrilyn Kenyon with Night Pleasures.

    And yeah, had to go look for Waldo LOL.

    ReplyReply

  29. sherry thomas
    May 09, 2007 @ 07:50:30

    I think Susan Johnson was one of the earliest authors with the pure man-titty cover. They were very beautiful (and didn’t show anything above the chin). But I remember, ten years ago, standing in a Barnes and Noble store, hesitating a long time before picking up a book of hers, because I thought mantitty was just too cheesy and that I couldn’t possibly want to read a book like that. It took the back blurb to convince me to sit down and read a few pages. And then the hotness, which was totally new to me, blew me away and I bought that book and a bunch of her other book in the year that followed.

    Somehow to this day I am reluctant to buy mantitty, especially if there is a face attached. But I would not object to a mantitty cover on my own book, as long as I don’t have to look the cover model in the eyes. Whatever makes it sell.

    ReplyReply

  30. Kristina Cook
    May 09, 2007 @ 08:21:08

    [quote comment="27988"]Okay, Kristina. I had to go look. Those are really cute chick lit covers… But yeah, not so great if you’re writing histoical.

    BUT, the latest cover is really hot! That has got to have you dancing aruond the room.[/quote]

    When I showed my agent the very first cover, for UNLACED, her reply was, “They’re marketing it as historical chick-lit?!” At least that book had a corset on it, so it somewhat hinted at historical, but the next two covers got more and more contemporary/madcap/romcom looking.

    And, yep, I love the TO LOVE A SCOUNDREL cover!!!!!! It actually reflects the tone/feel of the story–even the jewelry on the cover is germane to the book!

    ReplyReply

  31. Janine
    May 09, 2007 @ 09:24:30

    Somehow to this day I am reluctant to buy mantitty, especially if there is a face attached. But I would not object to a mantitty cover on my own book, as long as I don't have to look the cover model in the eyes. Whatever makes it sell.

    I have the same reluctance to buying some books with mantitty covers, and an even greater reluctance to reading those books in public. I remember years ago, being at the bookstore with one of Dara Joy’s books in my hands. It had gotten great buzz online, but I just couldn’t bring myself to take it up to the register because of the cover.

    I also prefer the chick-litty covers to Kristina Cook’s books over the cover of her new one. I realize they are not a good marketing choice because they mislead many readers (I knew she wrote historicals, but I inform myself on the internet, and many readers don’t), but personally, I would be more likely to buy one of those books because I wouldn’t be embarrassed to be seen reading it in public, and I like to read in public.

    ReplyReply

  32. phisteria
    Jun 02, 2007 @ 13:27:05

    I SOOO hate the mantitty and clinch covers. If I get one at the library or the grocery store, I use the self-check rather than look the clerk in the eye. It’s not that I’m a prude, it’s that they’re SO CHEESY.

    If I buy full-on erotica (sexy title and cover), I’m fine with taking that to the clerk. Cheesy mantitty or clinch though? I’m ashamed to be seen with it. When people see those, they smirk. The presumption is that the writing is as predictable and overblown and tacky as the cover.

    I must not be the target audience for those covers. The other day I got a Samantha James (with setback) at the library and the clerk said, “Aren’t those covers wonderful? So wild and romantic.” Yish.

    Honestly, I think part of it’s generation gap. That library clerk is 20 years older than I am. But this isn’t the 80s any more. While that was a fun decade, I appreciate a little more sophistication these days.

    ReplyReply

  33. Jane
    Dec 18, 2007 @ 10:35:47

    Angie and others – I am not saying that the majority of romance readers agree with me. What I am saying is that if respectability is something that romance wants (and deserves) that we have to either make changes or we just have to accept and embrace the embarassing parts of romance that makes us easy targets.

    We cannot, on the one hand say we don’t care what other people think and then on the other start saying people like Bindel need to ease up. The current image of romance is one that lends itself to Bindel’s criticism, not that I think the criticism is very sound given the basis of it (cover blurbs and titles).

    I think it goes back to the Adele Ashworth statement where she said “I write historical romance, not historical fiction.” If romance is just about fun and beach reads; if it is just feeding the market, then I don’t think that romance deserves to be taken seriously. It doesn’t deserve to stand next to literary fiction or other genre fiction. It and the books of the genre do not deserve to have reviews in the NY Times and so forth.

    I don’t think you can have it both ways.

    ReplyReply

  34. Dunc reads: Mini-reviews of April books | Jedi Knight Academy
    May 11, 2009 @ 04:52:42

    [...] so what?       It wasn’t until I got home that I noticed the man-titty, and I realized what I had. But, what the hell. Broadening horizons! That’s what the library [...]

  35. The Perils of Quacking Alone » Quacking Alone
    Jun 06, 2010 @ 09:47:57

    [...] never to tread.  As we speak, he’s looking for good stock photo material featuring…. MAN TITTIES.  Why?  Well, women like to look too and I’m interested in the marketing aspect of having a [...]

  36. AOFM-MWU – Unveiling of the Man-Titty « Quacking Alone
    Jun 30, 2010 @ 18:55:46

    [...] wanted for one of her serialized e-books is done; I have finally completed it. Behold, the first man-titty cover from Quacking Alone Romances – click the thumbnail, look upon it, and despair: Click [...]

  37. Rudiments of Book Marketing — Muriel Lede's Official Blog – Thoughts on reading, writing, and publishing erotica. Have a seat, there's plenty of room left!
    Aug 03, 2010 @ 15:59:33

    [...] at the top, and poetry in the background using a fancy font. Notice I stayed clear of decapitated man titty, that on purpose—further evidence I’m not whoring myself; let’s see how far it [...]

  38. Books In Sync Recognizes Author Gary Starta | The A2Z Website Online
    Dec 22, 2010 @ 10:36:06

    [...] wasn’t until I got home that I noticed the man-titty, and I realized what I had. But, what the hell. Broadening horizons! That’s what the library [...]

  39. Novel Prejudices « Just Another Pretty Farce
    Mar 15, 2012 @ 13:52:54

    [...] –blogger Jane at Dear Author Jane may have reformed her opinion over time, but I’m just not there yet. If the book has the nips-and-six in the cover art I just cannot bring myself to pick it up. I don’t care what the words say. The words could say “Abraham Lincoln’s physician, crushed by the loss of his presidential patient and close friend, escaped to Ireland where he found the magic of medicine and the medicine of true love” (words that would otherwise get me to give you more than $10 for the book). Doesn’t matter. In my book the Nips-and-six are nix. Verdict: Outright Prejudice Cover art is meant to be eye-catching and is usually designed by someone other than the author. I could be walking by a great many good stories by fleeing from these. Of course now that I have a Kindle the embarrassment factor caused by reading such a book in public is now non-existent. So there is that. [...]

Leave a Reply


+ 7 = 12

Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. You can also subscribe without commenting.

%d bloggers like this: