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How to Install Python and Pycrypto on Snow Leopard and PC

In your ebook lifetime, there may come a time that you will need to run python scripts to unlock your ebooks. There are various scripts out there on the internet, but they are all dependent on Python and Pycrypto. Getting the two programs installed can be a challenge. I’m going to give the instructions for both Windows and MAC.

1. Install 10.4 SDK (FOR MAC ONLY. If you are a PC, go to step 2).

For Mac: Under Snow Leopard, there are several python programs installed but it makes sense to run the latest which is Python 2.6. Unfortunately, if you try to install Python and Pycrytpo, you might get an error message something like this:

Compiling with an SDK that doesn't seem to exist: /Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk

After much drama, I found a post that said that you should install the 10.4u.sdk from the Mac OS X Install DVD which came with the computer. Once the DVD loads, choose “Optional Installs”.

You’ll be presented with this screen:

Choose “Xcode.mpkg”

From there, follow the defaults until you get to the “Custom Install on ‘Macintosh HD'” screen. Everything is checked but “MAC OS X 10.4 Support” and that is the program that you want to install.

Check the box beside it and follow the rest of the prompts.

2. Install Python hosts the latest versions of Python. The latest stable version is Python 2.6.4. Select whichever python program that suits your Operation System. For Mac, I suggest the “Mac Installer Disk Image” and for Windows, “2.6.4 Installer“.

For Windows, make sure that you follow the suggestion of the install program and install Python at the C:\python26 location. It will be easy to find by going to “Start -> My Computer -> “Local Disk C:”. Further, this will be important for the next step.

Python install

3. Install Pycrypto

For windows, it’s fairly easy to install this program. Simply download the module from Voidspace. Make sure that you are downloading and installing the right pycrypto module. If you installed Python 2.6.4 in the prior step (step 2), then download and install “PyCrypto 2.1 for 32bit Windows and Python 2.6 (.zip)” Unpack the Zip file and you will be left with an installer program. Double click and install in the default location (meaning, just click next).
Py Crypto Installer

For MACs, it requires use of the Terminal program. First, download Py Crypto. The latest version is 2.1.0. Unpack the program which in Mac is generally just double clicking on the file.

pycrypto folder download

Open Terminal program. Type “cd”. You are going to tell terminal program to “Change Directory” to the one that holds the pycrypto files. After you type “cd”, drag the “pycrypto-2.1.0” folder onto the terminal screen. This drops the entire path into terminal. It should now read “cd pathto/pycrypto-2.1.0” (path to being where you have the folder downloaded). Press return.

cd path

The next step is to run the install script. This is done by typing, in the terminal window, “python install” via kj in the comments:

python build (press return)
python install (press return and it ask for system password)

To double check if it is installed correctly, you go to “Macintosh HD/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Version/2.6/lib/python2.6” there should be a folder called “site-packages” and inside that folder should be this set of folders and files.

You are done. Python and pycrypto based scripts should now work on both Macs and PCs.

Jane Litte is the founder of Dear Author, a lawyer, and a lover of pencil skirts. She self publishes NA and contemporaries (and publishes with Berkley and Montlake) and spends her downtime reading romances and writing about them. Her TBR pile is much larger than the one shown in the picture and not as pretty. You can reach Jane by email at jane @ dearauthor dot com


  1. rosecolette
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 07:27:55

    A thousand thanks for this. I’d been concerned about installing Python on a Mac.

  2. MIreya
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 08:39:05

    I have been reading ebooks for 7 years, but I’ve never needed to break any codes for anything. What does this software do (and pardon the ignorance).

  3. Sunita
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 09:01:17

    @MIreya: Either you only read non-DRM books or you only use one DRM’d ebook reader. If you switch devices or read on more than one type, then your DRM’d books can’t be moved between them. For example, I’ve read on Palm platforms since the Palm Pilot (and before DRM), so I always bought everything in pdb or later mobi. When I got my Sony Reader I couldn’t read those books on it. When I switched to a Nokia phone I could read the mobi books (there is a reader for my version of Symbian) but I couldn’t read the pdb books because the eReader software doesn’t work on it. So I could either not read the books, buy another version, or strip the DRM and convert the pdb files to prc (mobi).

    The DRM decryption files all run via python, and some need pycrypto as well.

    Hope that helps.

    ETA: Non-DRM’d books can be converted to different file formats (via Calibre, for example) and read by different ebook formats. But DRM’d books can’t. Hence the need to decrypt.

  4. Mireya
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 10:52:57

    @Sunita: Thanks for the explanation. 90% of what I have is non-DRM as I got it from small epubs like EC, Loose Id, Samhain, etc. I use as e-readers either my Dell Pocket PC, which is ancient by modern standards as I got it in 2003, but I can read Mobi, Adobe, HTML, Microsoft reader, DOC, TXT and probably at least two other formats, without having to worry about anything. My other e-reader is a Sony e-reader. I use it for books purchased directly from their store, though I can now use it with a couple other formats.

    I’ll download and install it. The way things are going in the industry it will be a matter of when I’ll need to use this software, not a matter of if *sigh*

  5. kj
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 10:56:51

    Thanks, Jane. I’ve been using my PC virtual machine for Python scripts so this is great.

    Just in case others were having the same problem as me:

    when I typed in the last command for pycrypto:

    python install
    it didn’t work for me. It kept on saying unable to install. So instead of that command I typed in

    python build (press return)
    python install (press return and it ask for system password)

    This is the only way I was able to get Pycrypto to work with Python.

    Thanks again Jane!

  6. Ridley
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 14:50:27

    Thank you, Jane. I’d been meaning to do this, but just didn’t know which to grab. Finally using python will expand my shopping options a bit.

  7. Estara
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 15:54:25

    Thanks for this clear info, although I found out how to fiddle with it via this post a year ago. Yours is much clearer and the post has no info for Macs. In Germany wouldn’t be able to legally post even this much info.

    @Mireya: Honestly I’ve found it wise to decrypt all my legally bought drm-books right away. And back them up away from the eReaders or the PC – you never know when those will fail.

    Adobe just now announced with the new edition of their Digital Editions software that Adobe Content Server 3 has been shut down. All the people who hadn’t transferred the drm-books from being authorised there to Adobe Content Server 4 will no longer be able to transfer their legally bought books to any other device.

    And then there’s the iPAD which is planning not to use Adobe DRM at all, but their own version – and the fact that Barnes & Noble .epub books (for the Nook) with Adobe DRM can’t be read on the Sony eReader…

    The more I read the clearer it becomes that getting rid of the drm as soon as possible is the safest way to be sure not to have to buy the books again with any new reading platform.

  8. Mireya
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 16:38:49

    @Estara: thanks for the advice. I am going to be doing that soon. I already keep a backup of all my ebooks in a flash drive because I have been forced to reformat my PCs HD a couple of times over the past 4 years.

  9. Estara
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 17:06:37

    @Mireya: I’m over-protective of my books, but better safe than sorry I say ^^. I hope my comment will be rescued from the spam folder in some form.

  10. JessW
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 17:33:16

    Thanks so much for the detailed instructions, Jane. I have been searching for python script instructions for the non-computer experts over the past month.

  11. Kaetrin
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 18:28:03

    @Jane We run Windows Vista 64 bit. What versions should I use?

  12. LVLM
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 18:40:14

    Um.. dumb question here, but from what formats does Python change to what formats?

  13. Brian
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 19:04:00

    LVLM, Python doesn’t change anything to anything. It’s the language that most/all DRM uninfection scripts are written in. Once you have Python up and working you still need the scripts like Inept (ePub and PDF versions), mobidedrm (Mobi/Prc) and ereader2html (eReader PDB) and the various scripts for other formats like Kindle 4 PC, Topaz and B&N ePub.

  14. Elizabeth
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 22:06:24

    @Brian: Would someone be able to post links to these programs?
    I have hundreds of books with DRM, and I know I need to be proactive not to lose the ability to read them.

  15. Brian
    Feb 21, 2010 @ 23:25:52

    You can find them via a Google search. I don’t think they’d want them posted here as it might be (probably is) a DMCA violation.

    Inept has versions for ePub and PDF
    mobidedrm is for Mobipocket, etc.

    There’s also ConvertLit for MS Reader (LIT) files. That one doesn’t require Python or anything like that.

    I know many folks who remove DRM as soon as they buy a book. Not for any nefarious purposes, but just as a way to make sure what they bought will be usable on future devices.

  16. Installing Python on Mac and PC, Manga Recs and More
    Feb 22, 2010 @ 00:02:34

    […] (tech­ni­cal guru) wrote out the tuto­r­ial for installing Python and Pycrypto to your Mac or PC or both (you can have it your way). I am a new Mac user (pur­chased an iMac) and have already […]

  17. Mireya
    Feb 22, 2010 @ 06:17:56

    I am looking into the scripts part. I see already that this is going to take me a bit to figure out. This is not software that simply involves clicking on a few buttons. You need scripts, then you need to change the extension of those scripts once you have them saved on your system, then you have to go to command prompt … where’s the Advil …

  18. LVLM
    Feb 22, 2010 @ 08:42:20

    Thanks Brian- you’re very helpful. All this stuff seems maybe too complicated for my tech ability level. Just understanding how it works though is a step in the right direction. I’m so sick of not being able to buy some books because my reader can’t read them.

    Sits with Mireya.

  19. Suzanne Allain
    Feb 23, 2010 @ 17:04:34

    What happens if you’ve already lost your rights to open your eBook? For example, I bought a bunch of MS Reader LIT eBooks a few years ago and I can no longer open them on my current laptop, since I no longer remember the password for the account I activated them under. (And my old laptop bit the dust.) Is there a script to remove the DRM on a file you can no longer open, or does it have to be a reader file that you can still access? Because convertlit won’t work if you don’t have access to the eBook.

    I tried opening a support call to retrieve my password from Microsoft so I could just re-activate the books under my old account, but they were absolutely no help whatsoever.

  20. Preeti
    Feb 23, 2010 @ 21:36:42

    As a Mac OS user, this plus a post on the Viva eBooks blog has broken through the barrier that stopped me from switching from print to digital book buying in the past. Thanks!

  21. Jane
    Feb 23, 2010 @ 23:07:23

    @Suzanne Allain I’m not sure. I think if you can’t open your books, you wouldn’t be able to use these programs to open them up.

  22. Suzanne Allain
    Feb 24, 2010 @ 07:13:34

    @Jane: Thanks, Jane. I think you’re right. I’m starting to understand the frustration with DRM.

  23. Mireya
    Feb 24, 2010 @ 08:32:04

    @Suzanne Allain: I am still messing around figuring scripts, but I can tell you that if you can’t open them now, you’ll not be able to remove the DRM. I have the same situation with a few Mobipocket ones.

    It’s frustrating to learn this, but honestly, in the end, it is going to be worth the effort.

    *grabs the bottle of Advil and walks away*

  24. Nicole
    Feb 28, 2010 @ 15:00:38

    Jane, thank you so much for including these instructions. I needed them quite badly, and couldn’t believe that you’d posted these instructions exactly when I needed them. My Nook and I thank you!

  25. Jane
    Feb 28, 2010 @ 15:15:13

    @Nicole: I’m so glad it worked out for you.

  26. yukinojo
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 15:04:40

    Jane –
    You are a Goddess for posting this. I’m new to the whole Ebook thing and just bought a Kindle DX in November. It’s been a learning experience I can tell you. I also have a new Mac Mini (December) Running Snow Leopard 10.6.2. My problem, I think, is with installing PYCrypto 2.1.0.
    When I run the install script, it never asks for a password and instead gives me this error message:

    [localhost:~/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0] rbarnes% python install
    running install
    running build
    running build_py
    running build_ext
    warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.
    running install_lib
    running install_egg_info
    Removing /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/lib/python2.6/site-packages/pycrypto-2.1.0-py2.6.egg-info
    Writing /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/lib/python2.6/site-packages/pycrypto-2.1.0-py2.6.egg-info
    [localhost:~/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0] rbarnes%

    I’m asking because you mentioned much drama learning about the xcode for 10.4 install. Could it be that the GMP library mentioned in this error message is a part of that? I thought I installed it right, but maybe not. Also I noticed that the python 2.6.4 dmg file is labeled for macosx 10.3. Do I maybe need one for a newer version of macosx?

    The test you describe:

    “To double check if it is installed correctly, you go to “Macintosh HD/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Version/2.6/lib/python2.6″ there should be a folder called “site-packages”” Nope… not there.

    Do you have any other tests to suggest to see if the earlier steps in your spell… er procedure worked properly? And do you have any idea at all what this “GMP library” is and where I might get one for my very own?

    It reminds me a bit of playing Greyhawk way back in the day… “I’ve studied the Arcane Codexes, and consulted with a wizard (that would be you), but darn it…. I think I’ve mispronounced one syllable of the incantation and I’m not sure which one. ;-)


  27. Jane
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 15:12:11

    @yukinojo: Yes, I think if you are having the “egg info” problem it is due to not having the right sdk installed. Did you install 104u (I have a description of how to find it in the above post)?

    If so, go ahead and install all the rest of the xcode package.

    You’ll need to delete the python install if you added version 2.6 and then reinstall it after you have added the xcode package.

  28. Christine M.
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 20:21:06

    I’m the new owner of a Sony Touch and I was wondering if, using python and calibre, I would, say, be able to ‘break open’ Secure eReader format ebooks, then convert them to a file format my Sony can read?

  29. Jane
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 20:22:45

    @Christine M.: You can but you would need the secure ereader script.

  30. Christine M.
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 20:36:23

    Damn. So much for the attractiveness of fictionwise’s micropay dollars/rebates.

  31. Jane
    Mar 01, 2010 @ 20:46:40

    @Christine M.: Once you have the two programs installed, though, the scripts are easy to use. Just double click and follow the instructions.

  32. MEC
    Mar 02, 2010 @ 10:37:32

    Great helps on getting the Python scripts to work on my 10.5.6 Mac. The Xcode packages for the 10.5.6 OS x are known as the SDK 10.3.6 Xcode files and are in the Optional installations section of the startup disk.

    I have dine the build and installs of Python and PyCrypt seemingly satisfactorily. I have downloaded the latest versions of and ineptepb.pyw. Running “appears” to generate a ADEPTKEY.DER. When I feed that key into the Python GUI when running ineptepub.pyw. Once the “Decrypt” button is clicked, an error pops up withing the applet saying “Error: List assignment index out of range” Any idea where I should look for the bug causing this and how to fix it? No DRM-free output document is created at all.

  33. MEC
    Mar 02, 2010 @ 18:18:58

    Oops… small typo above… “” SHOULD BE “” Sorry for any confusion.

  34. Jane
    Mar 02, 2010 @ 19:58:27

    @MEC I don’t know the answer to your question. Are you sure you have Pycrypto installed? I would check for that.

  35. mec
    Mar 03, 2010 @ 02:01:17

    You are right… something went wobbly in the original Pycrypto install.

    I removed Python then reinstalled Xcode, reinstalled Python 2.6, and then attempted to run the build process. I ended up with a “GMP not found” error…..

    blahblah-macbook-pro:pycrypto-2.1.0 blahblah$ python build
    running build
    running build_py
    running build_ext
    warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.
    blahblah-macbook-pro:pycrypto-2.1.0 blahblah$

    Any ideas on the GMP error?

  36. MEC
    Mar 03, 2010 @ 02:36:00


    looks like the egg file is where it is supposed to be


    the Crypto folder and pycrypto-2.1.0-py2.6.egg-info plus a readme file are all in the site-packages folder

  37. Wren
    Mar 03, 2010 @ 23:45:14

    Hi Jane: This is my first time attempting to do anything with Python. I know little about Terminal, but I’m getting a similar error when I try to install PyCryto. Here’s what I get:

    Jamies-iMac-2:~ apple$ cd /Users/apple/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0
    Jamies-iMac-2:pycrypto-2.1.0 apple$ python build
    running build
    running build_py
    running build_ext
    warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.
    building ‘Crypto.Hash.MD2’ extension
    gcc -fno-strict-aliasing -Wno-long-double -no-cpp-precomp -mno-fused-madd -fno-common -dynamic -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -DMACOSX -I/usr/include/ffi -DENABLE_DTRACE -arch i386 -arch ppc -pipe -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -Isrc/ -I/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.5/include/python2.5 -c src/MD2.c -o build/temp.macosx-10.5-i386-2.5/src/MD2.o
    unable to execute gcc: No such file or directory
    error: command ‘gcc’ failed with exit status 1
    Jamies-iMac-2:pycrypto-2.1.0 apple$ python install
    running install
    running build
    running build_py
    running build_ext
    warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.
    building ‘Crypto.Hash.MD2’ extension
    gcc -fno-strict-aliasing -Wno-long-double -no-cpp-precomp -mno-fused-madd -fno-common -dynamic -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -DMACOSX -I/usr/include/ffi -DENABLE_DTRACE -arch i386 -arch ppc -pipe -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -Isrc/ -I/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.5/include/python2.5 -c src/MD2.c -o build/temp.macosx-10.5-i386-2.5/src/MD2.o
    unable to execute gcc: No such file or directory
    error: command ‘gcc’ failed with exit status 1

    I could really use some help. Thanks

  38. Jane
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 08:03:45

    @Wren: What version are you installing? I googled your error and came up with this:

  39. Jane
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 08:07:04

    @mec: Maybe try re downloading the pycrypto file? It may be the file you dl’d was corrupted? Are you downloading and installing the most recent version of pycrypto? (2.1 instead of 2.0.1)

  40. Liv
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 09:36:02

    @Jane: I’m sorry to sound so ignorant, but what exactly does this Python do? And why would I need to be using it?

    I have a collection of ebooks and would like to know if I should be using this script/program for some reason or another.

    Thank you.

  41. yukinojo
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 15:50:28


    Thanks for your quick reply, Jane.

    > @yukinojo: Yes, I think if you are having the “egg info” problem it is
    > due to not having the right sdk installed. Did you install 104u (I have a
    > description of how to find it in the above post)?

    Jane, I haven’t been able to find the “above post” you reference here I did the xcode install you described in your original post. Is that the 104u thingy you mention?

    I think I’ll go back to your original post and see if I can find something about the egg info problem you mention.

    > If so, go ahead and install all the rest of the xcode package.

    I’ll see if I can find more of the Xcode package sosome where and install it.

    > You'll need to delete the python install if you added version 2.6 and then
    > reinstall it after you have added the xcode package

    I’ll see if there’s an uninstall in the python s.6 package, and try to do this.

    Thanks for the tips, and sorry if I’m such a nube that most of this doesn’t mean anything to me, “egg info” and “104u” might as well be Turkish to me, but I’ll see what I can find out.

  42. yukinojo
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 16:42:46



    Sorry more problems.

    > You’ll need to delete the python install if you added version 2.6
    > and then reinstall it after you have added the xcode package.

    I can’t figure out how to delete the Python install. I could put the Python 2.6 folder in the Applications folder into the trash, but that would still leave all the thousands and thousands of files and folders that were put in other places. I don’t know where they are or how to get rid of them.

  43. yukinojo
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 16:50:39


    I want to apologize for all those posts in reply to your reply. This is all very confusing and frustrating to me. I REALLY understand what you ment when you mentioned “much drama.” While googling and trying to find out what things ment, I found a post on another board that said Apple decided to leave out an important part of Xcode in Snow Leopard because it was changing too fast. So Python is apparently broken in Snow Leopard because of Apple! Maybe they should fix it.


  44. Mireya
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 17:33:00

    @Liv: Liv, I didn’t know either, but it was kindly explained to me at the beginning of the thread. This software helps to remove DRM from ebooks. Further down in the thread mention of scripts was made, so that gave me further information. From figuring out what the scripts were I I had to use Google. It has been quite enlightening and suffice it to say, I can now read my ebooks in any device I want without any restriction. It can be a very frustrating process to learn, but if you buy a lot of DRMd ebooks, you certainly would benefit from learning more about this.

    If you do decide to go for this, you will also need Calibre, which Jane has extensively posted about.

    I love learning new stuff :D

  45. Liv
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 18:01:13

    @Mireya: Mireya, thanks so much for getting back to me. I have no idea if mine are DRM’d or not. I use the same books on my nook and my pc and they haven’t blown up or anything.

    This is just copyright stuff right? This doesn’t turn a epub or pdb into a pdf or html or anything does it?

    I get irritated that I can’t buy from the Sony/Border’s store for my nook, or ebookwise, Amazon, etc..

    Thanks again.

  46. Jane
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 19:30:05

    @yukinojo: If you are unsure then you probably don’t want to do it. I uninstalled Python by dragging it to the trash can.

    It does work on my Snow Leopard installation.

    @Liv: Calibre is the program that converts from one format to another. The scripts remove the DRM so that you can buy at other stores.

  47. Mireya
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 19:40:14

    @Liv: If you are buying your ebooks from places like Barnes and Noble (nook), Amazon (Kindle), ebookwise, Fictionwise, Sony Reader, etc. your books most definitely are DRMd. If you buy mostly from small epubs like Samhain Publishing, Loose Id, etc. they are not.

    This is why these programs Jane has been talking about and explaining become really useful tools. It takes a bit to figure it all out, but in the end, I think it’s worth the hassle.

  48. Liv
    Mar 04, 2010 @ 20:09:34

    @Mireya: Mireya, Thanks again. I’ll give it a go. I don’t want my ebooks to become useless. I’m think my Nook will become obsolete before my ebooks will.

    Let’s hope publishers don’t start doing self destructs on paperbacks.

    Off to wrangle a Python…

  49. MEC
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 08:05:00

    Jane.. thanks very much. I have redownloaded the Pycrypto file 2.1 (NOT 2.0.1) and keep running smack into the same GMP errors when attempting to the build process. Despite the GMP error and appearance that the build script is exiting, there is an egg file where you say it should be. Seems awfully odd that it is there, despite to build and install script not running properly.

    I appreciate any insights.. Thanks.

  50. Jane
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 08:53:16

    @MEC Have you tried to run any of the scripts? The error might be meaningless. Try to run a script and see what happens.

  51. Wren
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 09:59:49


    First, I’m on Leopard (10.5.8), not Snow Leopard, so I don’t know if that’s a problem… I’ve tried with Python 2.5 and Python 2.6 both using PyCrypto 2.1.0. No luck. No egg file, still the same “missing GMP” warning and the same “gcc: No such file or directory” error. Anyone have any advice? I’m about ready to give it up.

  52. Jane
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 10:24:11

    @yukinojo I’m not very conversant in this either. The xcode installation I refer to is the 10.4u thing

    I’m uncertain of the egg problem. You may have to google for that.

    Deleting the Python install is done by dragging the python 2.6 folder to the trash.

  53. Jane
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 10:25:08

    @MEC Unfortunately I don’t have any answers. I recommend trying the Mobile read forums. It is populated with a number of really smart individuals.

  54. yukinojo
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 12:36:52

    @Jane: @Jane:

    I’ve been using Google to try to find out more about the problem I’m having with using your Python install procedure on my Mac. I think I’m getting better at picking search criteria, which is, after all, the key to using a search engine. I found this site:

    Caution–It’s written in HIgh Nerdish, and may be difficult for an ordinary mortal to follow. I know I only understand a part of it. The key point the writer makes is this:

    “If you've tried to create a cocoa-python XCode project in Snow Leopard, you've probably realised that the templates for creating Python projects in XCode have not been included. The reason given for removing the Python (and Ruby) project templates from XCode was that the templates were changing faster than XCode updated.”

    Of course, I’m not trying to”…create a cocoa-python XCode project in Snow Leopard,” and probably never will. I think what this is saying is that the Most Nerdly Wizards at Apple broke Python, and we mere mortal users will have to live with it until they relent and decide to unbreak it.

    Certainly the procedure outlined in this is scary as hell, and I don’t think I’ll ever try it. *Sigh* I just wish it wasn’t necessary to even know this stuff. What a dreamer I am, eh?

    I knew about dragging the app package to the trash. I’m just concerned about all the files and folders left behind.

    I’m thinking the ultimate reason for the missing GMP problem that many of us seem also to be having is that we are using new Snow Leopard/Intel Macs, or Systems with a “clean install” of Snow Leopard, which would mean that there are no old files on the system from earlier versions of MacOsX. This may be why the GMP library isn’t there.

    What to do about it, beyond waiting patiently and practising calm, I don’t know. Any ideas?


  55. Kaetrin
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 17:26:27

    @ Jane

    I’ve got Windows 64 bit installed – the instructions above are for 32 bit – do you know which versions I should use for 64 bit?


  56. Jane
    Mar 05, 2010 @ 17:31:54

    @Kaetrin: You would choose to install the windows 64 bit versions, I presume, but in the same manner.

  57. Kaetrin
    Mar 06, 2010 @ 02:25:09

    I worked out which one to use for Python but I couldn’t tell which one to use for the Pycrypto.

  58. Jane
    Mar 07, 2010 @ 10:42:24

    @Kaetrin I’m not sure. Maybe install the original source code and do a manual build?

  59. yukinojo
    Mar 08, 2010 @ 14:03:28


    An interesting new development. I ran Software Update this morning, and discovered that Apple has released an Update for Xcode that brings it up to Xcode version 3.2.1. I installed it, and was able to successfully install pycrypto! Well, sort of. When I do the test you describe in your procedure, ie. checking the folder at Macintosh HD/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Version/2.6/lib/python2.6 for a folder called “site-packages” it’s there and it has the files you list in it. And we all rejoiced! “Yaaaay!!”

    Sadly, I still get the “warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.” ;-( Aaand the mobidedrm script still fails with a Python: No match error. Apparently Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath is important. Still, this is an improvement, and folks should consider running Software Update because it seems to fix the egg-info problem. As for the rest I shall vow to endeavor to persevere because I am so very civilized (sorry, obscure movie reference).


  60. Maureen
    Mar 31, 2010 @ 20:23:06

    I have been using python 2.6, pycrypto 2.l, indeptepub.decrypter v.2 on XP with no problem until today. All of a sudden I am told when I go to put the output file name in that there is no file or path. I uninstalled and reinstalled everything and still get the same message. I want to decrypt e.pubs from Adobe Digital Editions. Any help you can give me?

  61. David
    Apr 18, 2010 @ 02:44:33

    If you have a Mac, this link may be “just what the doctor ordered.”

  62. LL
    Apr 30, 2010 @ 18:11:12

    @Jane: @Christine M.: Once you have the two programs installed, though, the scripts are easy to use. Just double click and follow the instructions.

    I’ve double clicked a lot of things and nothing is running on my pc. Is there a website that might have some detailed info for me on it? I’ve tried googling it, but that’s not much help.

  63. meoskop
    May 09, 2010 @ 13:19:59


    Fixed the GMP library error – first of all even if you have admin access if your mac has multiple users you have to do this under the main account. (warning, I am computer functional, not computer literate and my in-house help desk was required My in house help desk says this may not be true on every mac, but might have been because I didn’t have software developer tools on mine)

    First we updated / installed the GMP library from MacPorts

    Then we installed Pcrypto and it built.

    When I returned to my user account I could use some scripts, but I had a problem with one not recognizing pcrypto that was solved by opening it with python2.6 directly.

  64. Nederlandse boeken op iPad | Kees van Dorp
    May 11, 2010 @ 13:44:49

  65. Thothamon
    May 19, 2010 @ 18:57:41

    Can you please give me a step-by-step on how one finds the file on and then how do you install it? I’m really stuck here, thanks!

  66. Albert O'Connor
    May 22, 2010 @ 16:34:47

    Thanks so much for the guide. I am always sad when I easy install something on my mac which needs to build something. But with your post I was able to get it work easily!

  67. Mike
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 19:58:52

    Sorry to use comments for a call for help but I’m struggling. Installed the sdk, and python (which seems fine when I check it via terminal), but when I go to install pycrypto via the terminal I end up with this:

    -bash: cd/Users/AronsonHome/Desktop/pycrypto2.1.0: No such file or directory

    Any idea? The folder is there (I’ve tried it with the folder in Downloads and on the Desktop) but it won’t change the directory over to the folder so I can begin to install.

  68. Jane
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 21:37:23

    @Mike I assume you have the pycrypto folder on your desktop. I know this is a dumb question but are you typing in the exact name of the directory? Is it possibly named something different?

  69. Mike
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 21:42:29

    @Jane: No such thing…but I’m just dragging it into the terminal like you suggested so it should be alright. Just for kicks I just tried typing it in by hand, and then once again renaming the folder, no dice.

  70. Jane
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 21:45:24

    @Mike: This is another stupid question from me because I am not very technologically proficient but why are you typing -bash? Shouldn’t you just type cd?

  71. mike
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 21:53:40

    @Jane: That’s not there when I originally type it in, only after hitting return, I assumed it was part of the error message.

  72. Jane
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 22:00:27

    @Mike: I can’t understand why you can’t rename your folder. Do you have administrative privileges on your Mac? Meoskop says you have to do this from the main account.

  73. mike
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 22:06:26

    Hmm, I only have one account for this machine. Although this is the machine I use to sync my ipad (I’m trying this so I can borrow library books for my daughter for a roadtrip) I think I’ll try to get it working on my work machine tomorrow. Stay tuned (and thanks for the help)!

  74. David
    Jun 01, 2010 @ 23:15:29

    See if the link in comment # 60 meets your needs.

  75. Chris
    Jun 02, 2010 @ 04:54:01

    Anybody…. got to the stage where the automated INEPT EPUB decrypter offers me three choices. I insert this as instructed and the response is “No such file or directory”

    Help…. please

  76. Mireya
    Jun 02, 2010 @ 05:40:38

    What I do is copy and paste the book I want to the folder that I created for Python, and save to that same folder. I use the tool, saving to that same directory, and then move the book to my regular books folder. Be aware that you will not be able to use the tool on all epub books. I have a few of mine in which the tool does not work.

  77. Patrick
    Jun 07, 2010 @ 01:41:58

    When I run, I get the following error:

    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “/Users/patrickreagan/Downloads/”, line 31, in
    from ctypes import windll, c_char_p, c_wchar_p, c_uint, POINTER, byref, \
    ImportError: cannot import name windll

    I’m running Mac OS X 10.6.3 and the install detailed above ran perfectly, but I cannot get my personal key. Help, please!

  78. David
    Jun 07, 2010 @ 07:21:21

    Patrick, did you try the link in comment #60 as a work-around?

  79. Patrick
    Jun 07, 2010 @ 08:05:51

    @David: Thanks for the quick reply. However, when I try to use the workaround, “open with” does not allow me to use The file I am working with is a Adobe Digital Editions Document.

  80. ken
    Jun 12, 2010 @ 11:14:58


    Hi, I still have no luck to build and install the pyCrypto in my Mac OS Leopard. can you help me ?
    this is what happened when i type build :

    running build
    running build_py
    running build_ext
    warning: GMP library not found; Not building Crypto.PublicKey._fastmath.
    building ‘Crypto.Hash.MD2’ extension
    gcc-4.0 -arch ppc -arch i386 -fno-strict-aliasing -fno-common -dynamic -O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -Isrc/ -I/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/include/python2.6 -c src/MD2.c -o build/temp.macosx-10.3-fat-2.6/src/MD2.o
    unable to execute gcc-4.0: No such file or directory
    error: command ‘gcc-4.0’ failed with exit status 1

  81. Allison
    Jun 15, 2010 @ 21:11:26

    I am having the same problem as Mike in comment #65. I download PyCrypto from the above link and drag it to my desktop. Then I open it so a folder appears on my desktop. I then open Terminal and type “cd” and drag the folder into the terminal screen. I then hit return and get “No such file or directory.” I also get the “-bash” that Mike was getting. I am an administrator for this computer so I am not sure why it is doing this. Any suggestions?

  82. Monshinique
    Jun 23, 2010 @ 08:39:37

    I kept getting the “no such file or directory” error too and and spent a lot of time researching how to correct that. A forum comment on from edembowski suggested downloading git. I then went to the pycrypto site and started with the directions under “Source Code.” From there it was pretty easy to get it all installed.

  83. Question for Bremen: Kobo books vs. iBooks - Page 2 - Apple iPad Forum
    Jun 24, 2010 @ 15:07:14

    […] I didn't need pycrypto to strip the Kindle books, but apparently it's necessary for ADE books. Also, it's very difficult to get pycrypto installed on OSX. I found this really helpful article, if anyone else is struggling with this: How to Install Python and Pycrypto on Snow Leopard and PC | Dear Author […]

  84. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 08:31:07


    Last login: Thu Jul 8 22:25:34 on ttys000
    faith-abquinas-MacBook:~ faithabquina21$ cd
    faith-abquinas-MacBook:~ faithabquina21$ /Users/faithabquina21/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0 python build
    -bash: /Users/faithabquina21/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0: is a directory
    faith-abquinas-MacBook:~ faithabquina21$ python install
    /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/Resources/ can’t open file ‘’: [Errno 2] No such file or directory
    faith-abquinas-MacBook:~ faithabquina21$


  85. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 09:22:02

    what to do after git install?

  86. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 09:22:23

    @Monshinique: what to do after git installed?

  87. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 09:28:14

    @Jane: im on 81. please help me

  88. Jane
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 09:41:53

    @Faith Macadaan Abquina: I’m not an expert on these issues. My best advice is to delete and try again.

  89. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 10:01:28

    @Jane: i did.. couple of times still same error.. pls help me?

  90. Jane
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 10:28:10

    I’m sorry but I don’t know that I can help you.

  91. Faith Macadaan Abquina
    Jul 08, 2010 @ 12:02:00

    @Estara: help me im no 81

  92. Larry
    Jul 17, 2010 @ 22:40:41

    This slight modification of the process worked for me on 10.6:
    Instead of double-clicking on pycrypto-2.1.0 which you downloaded (which is actually pycrypt-2.1.0.tar.gz, but you may not see the .tar.gz if Finder is set up to hide known extensions) … copy the file from your Downloads folder to your home folder, e.g. (change this for your user name):
    cp /Users/larry/Downloads/pycrypto-2.1.0.tar.gz ~
    cd ~
    tar -xvf pycrypto-2.1.0.tar.gz
    (this will produce a folder called pycrypto-2.1.0)
    cd pycrypto-2.1.0
    python build
    python install
    If there are no error messages, you can delete the pycrypto-2.1.0 folder, and pycrypto-2.1.0.tar.gz.


  93. janine
    Aug 15, 2010 @ 08:35:08

    Can anybody tell me why my MAC can’t find the file/directory after :
    After you type “cd”, drag the “pycrypto-2.1.0″ folder onto the terminal screen. This drops the entire path into terminal. It should now read “cd pathto/pycrypto-2.1.0″ (path to being where you have the folder downloaded). Press return.

    The message: -bash:cd/Applications/pycrypto-2.1.0: No such file/directory computer :

  94. Jane
    Aug 15, 2010 @ 16:04:53

    @janine: Did you try the suggestion by commenter 80?

    One person recommended downloading git.

    Another Fink

    If those two options don’t help, you might try MobileRead’s

  95. Sally
    Aug 15, 2010 @ 20:30:45

    @mike: I had the same exact error on Terminal what I ended up figuring out was that I needed to put a space in between the words cd and the name of the folder I was dragging into Terminal.

  96. Mike
    Aug 20, 2010 @ 03:21:27

    Thanks a lot, dude! I was really lost trying to install the Crypto package via Python’s “” – required MinGW, GMP and God knows what else.

  97. Kerri
    Oct 03, 2010 @ 12:23:42

    Thank You to Jane for the original article and to Preeti for suggesting Viva Ebooks that helped me to un drm my legit ebooks so I can read them on my iphone.

    I’m so grateful to both of you.

    The whole drm thing just makes me love Baen even more for never using the horrible stuff on their ebooks.

  98. dawn
    Oct 04, 2010 @ 11:02:49

    I know it’s a little silly, but after I have successfully followed all the steps above, I don’t know what I am supposed to do now to strip the drm of my kindle books. Is there a step by step guide anywhere? The ones I find like
    are mostly for windows and confused me to no end… (I use a mac os X).

    Really looking forward to someone who can help me. Thanks!

  99. will
    Nov 26, 2010 @ 01:15:30

    Thx for the forum. After much googling and noodling trying to get this to work I stumbled on this site — and the key was as a simple as installing the Xcode package. I was hung up for a long time on the “GMP library not found” error. In the end, that error still came up in the PyCrypto build phase, but doesn’t seem to matter. After the build, I ran the install script, and voila. I simply double clicked on the app, specified the location for the .der file; then double-clicked the ineptpdf.pyw app and specified the in/out filenames. Bob’s my uncle.

    The whole impulse behind this is not to copy books — but to free from the yoke of the ADE reader, which sucks.

  100. Hugo
    Dec 18, 2010 @ 07:42:00

    I use a Mac.
    Install was good and checked.
    And now, how I use it to remove DRM from ePub ?
    Very thanks.

  101. Hugo
    Dec 18, 2010 @ 08:26:19

    … I got with “ineptepub.pyw” the decrypter window.

    Key file : adeptkey.der
    Input Path : A Folder with book.epub inside
    Output Path : An other Folder

    And I got
    Error in: book.epub[Errno 2] No such file or directory :’/Users/hugo/Desktop/Books\\book.epub’

    Thanks for your Help.

  102. annoyedbuyer
    Jan 10, 2011 @ 08:49:59

    I bought a digital edition of a book from a store that advertised it as a PDF. I was expecting it to be readable in adobe acrobat. However it came with a .acsm extension so it wont open on anything except Adobe digital edition. I dont like reading on Digital Edition, I want it to open on Adobe Acrobat which I find a lot easier to use. Is there any way of working around the Digital Rights Management or atleast getting the file to open with acrobat by running the script that you talked about here. I dont want to reproduce the book, I just want to be able to read it in acrobat. I can see the file as a PDF, it just wont open like one

  103. Jane
    Jan 10, 2011 @ 09:43:31

    @annoyedbuyer: An encrypted PDF can only be read with Adobe Digital Editions. You’ll have to strip the DRM to read the PDF with Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader. There is an applescript that removes the DRM or you can google for a plugin for a free program called Calibre.

  104. annoyedbuyer
    Jan 10, 2011 @ 10:01:43

    @Jane: thanks Jane! i’ll have a go at it.

  105. Dan
    Jan 18, 2011 @ 10:05:12

    Does this process work for pdf books that require a “user name” and “password”?

  106. Remove DRM from Adobe Digital Editions – Background |
    Feb 02, 2011 @ 16:09:03

    […] As you see you can also run these scripts in Mac OS X like Snow Leopard. […]

  107. Brian
    Feb 03, 2011 @ 01:21:11

    @Jane, Thank you very much! My wife had purchased B&N ebooks thinking she’d be able to read them on her sony ereader that I’d gotten her for christmas. I was lost with installing the python and pyccripto, until I found your post. All worked perfectly, and now her money didn’t go to waste! Again, Thank you!

  108. Marc Grober
    Feb 20, 2011 @ 12:54:59

    This looks a bit outdated…..

    For Mac OSX Snow Leopard…
    * Install Xcode
    * Install MacPorts
    Once MacPorts is installed, install tk, pythonx.x and pyxx-tkinter (where xx is the majorminor version of the python version (as in 2.7 or 3.1) and gmp. there was an issue with pyxx-tkinter so you have to install separately, and as this provides the gui, don’t forget this step.) These are all installed with “sudo port install yyyy” where yyyy is the port to be installed.

    * Now download the current version of PyCrypto and build (don’t forget to use sudo for this as well, as in “sudo pythonx.x install”

    Lastly, mac ports puts python in /opt/local, so you need to
    * make sure that you have a .profile that points to the proper bins
    AND unless you want to invoke python as python2.7,
    * you need to create a link from /opt/bin/python2.7 to python

    Now you are good to go

  109. TEC
    Feb 20, 2011 @ 19:21:42

    @Marc Grober: Thanks for this. I keep getting an error when I try the first way. Can you explain it in a more simple way for us new mac users? Thanks.

  110. Marc Grober
    Feb 20, 2011 @ 21:30:41

    @TEC – actually, the easiest way to manage all this is to use the Calibre plugins that Alf has published here and discusses here You just need to download the tools from the first link, install calibre (, and then install the plugins (start calibre, click on the gears icon and scroll down to the “advanced setion and click on the plugin icon-click on add and browse to the “tools” folder from the alf download and you will find a “Calibre_plugins” folder with the plugins – don’t unzip them, just add them one at a time – there are readme files for each plugin that tells you how to configure the plugins.)

    But, if you want to run the scripts from python then the easiest way is to install Xcode from your DVD set (forget about 10.4 support but include X11), and then install macports ( get the installer package – dmg file- for your OS from )

    Once macports is installed then install the packages mentioned using the appropriate commands – here is an example for the nmap package, which you don’t need, but it is the example in the manual, so…..

    I have been told that if you install py27-crypto (as in
    Macbook:yourdirectory$ sudo port install py27-crypto
    you will not need anything else (it will install pycrypto for you), but I am unsure whether this will include tkinter, which you need if you want to use some of the scripts that employ a GUI…. so you can try it, and if the gui does not come up install pyt27-tkinter per my notes above… Otherwise, install the packages identified from MacPorts (python2.7, tk, py27-tkinter, gmp and python_select) and then download and install the latest version pycrypto from (its at 2.3 now) and install as Jane suggests (cd to the downloaded folder and “sudo python2.7 install”

    Now python scripts can be run from the terminal by entering “python2.7”. Of course you can you python_select to select the python2.7 envirnoemtn over the 2.6 that Apple provides, or you can
    $cd /opt/local/bin
    $ln -s python2.7 python

    Let me know what specifics are unclear – things will make more sense if you look at my comments while you work through the steps.

  111. TEC
    Feb 24, 2011 @ 05:36:43

    @Marc Grober: Thanks so much for your fast reply on this! I did try the first option and it worked on my new books that I purchased from Kindle. Unfortunately somehow in the process my 134 books that came on my Sony reader when I bought it used on ebay will not open now. I haven’t had much time to mess with it. Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks again for your help!

  112. Marc Grober
    Feb 24, 2011 @ 09:22:10

    @TEC not sure what you mean by “first way”….. As I understand it Sony now offers epubs only and uses Adobe ADEPT so you need to use the tool appropriate for that system – that would mean the ineptepub plugin for calibre or the appropriate python script from I <3 Cabbages (which is included in the ApprenticeAlf tools mentioned above.) I don't know why your pre-existing sony books won't open if you haven't messed with them….

  113. Alex
    Jun 08, 2011 @ 03:15:25

    If you have Python installed, the ‘Apprentice Alf’ package works like a charm, no need to install Macports and Pycrypto.

  114. pixel
    Sep 21, 2011 @ 11:13:06

    Thanks for this page Jane.

    I had a problem installing with Xcode 4 on Lion 10.7.1, GMP not found error, had to remove other python versions and install this one : Python 2.7.2 Mac OS X 64-bit/32-bit x86-64/i386 Installer with pycrypto version 2.3. and this worked for me.

  115. rickhawk4
    Oct 08, 2011 @ 12:12:36

    Is there a script to remove DRM from an epub book purchased from iTunes? I seem to have everything installed properly and working. I am able to generate an “adeptkey.der” for my purchased book. However when I run inept epub decrypter I get the error message “not an adept epub”. Any thoughts? Is it possible that the script is for Adobe “Epub” & not Apple “epub”? Is there a difference in the two scripts? Does anyone know where to find the Apple script? My Google searches keep returning only the Adobe script (same spelling). This has now become a matter of principal for me after reading all the posts & working at this for the better part of a week now in order to get to this point. (Forget the Advil – pass the Vicoden)

    I also had problems installing Pycrypto as described above in the drag & drop process. However I noticed with the drag & drop there was no space between the ‘CD’ & the path. I then typed “CD”, hit the spacebar once & then dragged & dropped. Installed perfectly. I hope this might help some who are having problems or that come after me.

    Thanks so very, very much for your website. I never would have gotten this far this quick without it.

  116. Jane
    Oct 08, 2011 @ 12:18:07

    @rickhawk4 – I don’t think there is a script to remove DRM from iBookstore books.

    This article is somewhat dated as removing DRM is best done via calibre and plugins for calibre. No need for python or pycrypto.

  117. Maurem Kayna
    Oct 18, 2011 @ 11:57:19

    @Marc Grober: Does it works with os 10.5.8??

  118. Maurem Kayna
    Oct 18, 2011 @ 12:01:37

    @TEC: Problably your books on the sony reader only can be opened if you use the key user from the old owner…. the person who bought those e-books…

  119. Leroy Cooper
    Jan 10, 2012 @ 04:20:39

    Does anyone have a solution to Hugo’s issue at point 100/101? I loaded pycrypto just fine but when I tried to launch via terminal I get the same error message as Hugo did. Need a step by step for the next stage if anyone can spare it?

  120. Recuperando conversaciones de Whatsapp a partir de los ficheros de Android en OS X | Multimaníaco 2.0
    Apr 15, 2013 @ 15:03:53

    […] Es necesario instalar Python y la librería PyCrypto para desencriptar la base de datos (instrucciones detalladas en inglés aquí) […]

  121. chuck simmons
    Jan 20, 2014 @ 19:47:36

    The mac instructions no longer seem to work.
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “”, line 456, in
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 152, in setup
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 953, in run_commands
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 972, in run_command
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/command/”, line 573, in run
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 326, in run_command
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 972, in run_command
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/command/”, line 127, in run
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 326, in run_command
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 972, in run_command
    File “”, line 251, in run
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 326, in run_command
    File “/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/distutils/”, line 972, in run_command
    File “”, line 278, in run
    raise RuntimeError(“autoconf error”)
    RuntimeError: autoconf error

  122. How to decrypt an ebook with DRM. Troubleshooting DRM issues. | Octavian Logigan
    Mar 05, 2014 @ 18:14:09

    […] Detailed instructions on Python and Pycrypto installation with screenshots can be found here. […]

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